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Archivistische beschrijving
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Violence

The incidence of political violence escalated during the 1970s and 1990s. The liberation movements had gone underground with their banning. The state enacted legislation to prevent protest by civil society and exerted its authority through the use of the army and police force, which often led to violent confrontations. The covert activities of state security resulted in assassination attempts and confrontations. These and other factors contributed to a violent society.

Subjects include police, kitskonstabels, defence force, Civil Co-operation Bureau, ANC, APLA, third force, trials, sexual violence, weapons, taxi violence, train violence, self-defence units and church.

The material dates from 1972 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material.

Unpublished material may not be quoted without the permission of the author.

The three main categories of material are:

Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles.

Documents include organisational newsletters, Hansard extracts, published and unpublished reports, Amnesty International press alerts and notes.

Publications include government issues of tourist and investment brochures, conference and study papers, publications issued by non-governmental and political groups, copies of legislation, handbooks, publications from international, anti-apartheid organisations and churches.

Land

The rights to own land and to live and work at a place of choice were circumscribed by apartheid. Legislation that preceded the period reflected in this material includes the 1913 Natives Land Act. It prescribed areas for land ownership according to race. In many instances black landowners and tenants were forced off their land. The Natives Act of 1923 segregated ownership of urban land, allocating areas on the periphery of towns and cities for black townships or locations. Later the Prevention of Illegal Squatters Act of 1951 laid the basis for the removal of people occupying land illegally.

Kairos campaigns that dealt with land issues include:

1977 Crossroads See 1.2.6.1.8. and 1.2.6.3.

1981 Slegs vir Swartes See 1.2.5.

1982 'Stop forced removals in South Africa.

Campaign against removal of the Nyanga Bush people. See 1.2.6.1.4. and 1.2.6.3.

Focus on Ciskei bus boycott. See 1.1.1.1.

1983-1984 Trial of S Mkhatswha in the Ciskei. See 1.1.2.1.1.

1984 Campaign Kaapstad wanhoopt (cry of despair). Threatened removal of residents from Crossroads, Nyanga, to Khayelitsha. See 1.2.5.1.10., 1.2.6.1.4., 1.2.6.1.8., 1.2.6.1.9., and 1.2.6.3.

1991 Campaigns against the removal of residents of Goedgevonden. Support for the land claims of the people from Elandskloof. See 1.4.3.3.

1992 Support for Vastenaktie project, AFRA. See 1.5.2.9.

1993 Special Amandla about land issues. See 1.3.1.3.2. Investigation by Mirjam van Donk about the church in relationship to land issues. See 1.3.2.3. and 1.4.7.

Subjects include homelands, resettlements, informal settlements, squatters, resistance, land and labour legislation, boycotts, migrant workers, agriculture and labour.

Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.

The material dates from 1970 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material. Some material, particularly from the 1970s and early 1980s is undated or dates are illegible.

Three main categories of material are used:

Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles.

Documents include organisational newsletters, Hansard extracts, published and unpublished reports, Amnesty International press alerts and notes.

Publications include government issues of tourist and investment brochures, conference and study papers, publications issued by non-governmental and political groups, copies of legislation, handbooks, publications from international, anti-apartheid organisations and churches.

Human Rights

Prior to the 1994 elections, the Nationalist government applied the policy of apartheid or separate development with whites holding both political and economic paper. Apartheid was enforced through legislation such as the Group Areas Act.

All Kairos campaigns had a human rights grounding, campaigns that relate to this sub-inventory are:

1976 Campaign calling for a boycott against one of the of the major banks in the Netherlands.

1979 Campaign against the role of the Royal Dutch Shell in South Africa.

1982 United Nations year for sanctions against South Africa. Several activities to promote boycotts, sanctions and disinvestment.

1985 Steunt uw geld apartheid? (Does your money support apartheid?) Campaign in co-operation with ten church organisations. Focus on economic sanctions against South Africa, boycott of tourism to South Africa and boycott of fruit from South Africa.

1986 Trade union leader speaks on behalf of Kairos at Philips shareholders meeting.

1993 25 October 1993. Lecture by Justice R Goldstone.

See 11.3. The Kairos Foundation for a list of publications and information booklets, many of which were written for Kairos campaigns. Many of these are Dutch titles, but were also issued in English.

Subjects include apartheid, justice, legislation, Hoexter Commission, Rabie Commission, traditional authorities, refugees and exiles, sport, the United Nations and Amnesty International. The material covers a broad area of human rights issues, not all in depth. There is a large amount of material about legislation and the judicial process. The material under 6.5. Sport has a number of documents about sports boycotts.

Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.

The material dates from 1962 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material.

There are three main categories of material:

Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles.

Documents include organisational newsletters, letters, memoranda, and reports.

Publications include published reports, seminar and conference papers, pamphlets, magazines, handbooks and educational material and books.

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